Six Cherokee Chiefs Visit King GeorgeFrom that period in which the right and title to the lands of Carolina were sold by the proprietorship and surrendered to the King and he assumed the immediate care and government of the province, the Carolineans who had long laboured under innumerable hardships and troubles from a weak proprietary establishment, at last obtained a royal government. After a model of the British Constitution was presented, the government of Carolina assumed the familiar form of three branches, viz; a Governor, a Council and an Assembly. The first object of royal concern was the establishment of peace in the colony and it was at this point that Sir Alexander Cumming was sent out to treaty a peace with the Cherokee Indians, a warlike and formidable Nation of savages. These Indians occupied the lands about the head of Savannah river, and backwards among the Apalachian mountains. The country they claimed as their hunting grounds was of immense extent; and its boundaries had never been clearly ascertained. The inhabitants of their different towns has counted more than 20,000 Indians, 6,000 of whom were warriors. As soon as Sir Alexander arrived in the colony in 1720, he made preparations to go to the distant hills and hired some Indian traders as his guides and interpreters. When he reached Keowee, the chiefs of the lower towns met him and received him with marks of great friendship and esteem. He immediately dispatched messengers to the middle, the valley, and over-hill settlements and summoned a general meeting of all their chiefs, to hold a congress with him at Nequassee. Thus, during the month of April the chief warriors of all the Cherokee towns assembled at the place appointed. After the various Indian ceremonies ended, Sir Alexander made a speech to them, acquainting them by whose authority he was sent, and representing the great power and goodness of his sovereign King George; that he had come a great way to demand of Moytoy (and all the chieftains of the nation) to acknowledge themselves as the subjects of his King. Upon which the chiefs, falling on their knees, solemnly promised fidelity and obedience, calling upon all that was terrible to fall upon them if they violated their promise. Sir Alexander then, by their unanimous consent, nominated Moytoy commander and chief of the Cherokee nation, and enjoined all the warriors of the different tribes to acknowledge him for their King. The chiefs all agreed. After which many useful presents were given to the trives, the congress ended. A crown was brought from the chief town (in Tennessee)having five eagle tails and four scalps (of their enemies). Moytoy presented the crown to Sir Alexander, requesting him, upon his arrival in Great Britain, to lay it at the feet of his Majesty, King George. But Sir Alexander proposed to Moytoy, that he should ask some of the chiefs to accompany him to England for the purpose of doing homage in person to the great King. Accordingly six of them agreed, and accompanied Sir Alexander to Charlestown, where being joined by another, they embarked for England in the Fox Man of War, and arrived at Dover in June of 1730. The vision of London greatly impressed the chiefs as being a great city with a large number of people. As they saw the splendour of the army and court, they were admitted into the presence of the King where they promised to continue as his Majesty's faithful and obedient subjects. A treaty was accordingly drawn up, and signed by the secretary to the Lords Commissioners of trade and plantations (one one side of the document) and by the marks of the six chiefs (on the other side). The treaty fashioned the King and the Cherokees together by a chain of friendship and ordered trade among the Indians. Britain agreed to furnish them all manner of goods and to build houses and plant corn from Charleston towards the towns of the Cherokees in the great mountains. This was the substance of the first treaty between the King and the Cherokees, every article of which was accompanied with presents of different kinds, such as cloth, guns, shot, vermilion, flints, hatchets, knives. Source: An Historical Account Of The Rise And Progress Of The Colonies Of South Carolina And Georgia, Volume 2 by Alexander Hewatt.
"Fortune", the Beloved Servant of Captain John BuchananCaptain John Buchanan and his brother, Robert, came to this country from Ireland a few years before the Revolutionary war. The brother, Robert resided in Charleston and taught a classical school. Robert served as a lieutenant in the Revolutionary War and was captured at the fall of Charleston and died on board a British ship. Captain John Buchanan raised a company in Fairfield and fought in the battle of Cowpens and other battles. He was stationed at Georgetown, and upon the landing of Marquis LaFayette, was the first American officer to welcome and entertain the gallant Frenchman who helped to achieve the liberties of America. The captain had the honor of presenting LaFayette with a fine horse. As it was, Captain Buchanan had a body servant named Fortune. His name is attached to a spring in a fine grove near Winnsboro, where Fortune cultivated a rice patch. When LaFayette visited this country in 1826, Fortune traveled to Lancaster to visit him. At first, the sentinel refused to admit the old African, but he persisted, and was admitted by order of General LaFayette who recognized him and was glad to see the servant of his old friend. Nearly fifty years had passed since Fortune had blacked his boots. This is not the only time Fortune appeared in public. It is also said that during the French Revolution, the Captain sometimes wore his full military uniform on public occasions, and mount his war steed to ride up and down the main street of Winnsboro, followed by Fortune.
London Merchants Enriched by Carolina PlantationsAfter King George took possession of South Carolina, the credit of the province in England increased. The merchants of London, Bristol, and Liverpool turned their eyes to Carolina, as a new and promising channel of trade, and established houses in Charlestown for conducting their business with the greater ease and success. They poured in slaves from Africa for cultivating their lands, and manufactures of Britain for supplying the plantations. It was through this process that the planters obtained credit and goods at a much cheaper rate than they could be obtained from any other nation. This caused the planters to turn their whole attention to cultivation, and cleared the lands with greater facility and success. The lands arose in value, and men of foresight and judgment began to invest in the richest soils. Within a shorr period, produce from the province doubled as more than thirty-nine thousand barrels of rice were exported, as well as deer-skins, furs, naval stores. During this period exports kept pace with imports and good credit was secured in England. The rate of exchange had now arisen to seven hundred per cent. That is to say, that seven hundred Carolina money was given for a bill of an hundred pounds sterling on England, which rate continined with little variation for upwards of forty years. Before this time, the face of Carolina appeared like a desert, with very little cleared acreage.
Source: An Historical Account Of The Rise And Progress Of The Colonies Of South Carolina And Georgia, Volume 2 by Alexander Hewatt.
The county was formed in 1785 as part of Ninety Six District and Camden County; parts of Edgefield later went to form Aiken (1871), Saluda (1895), Greenwood (1897), and McCormick. The town of Winnsboro, which was settled around 1755, is the county seat. It was settled both by Scotch-Irish immigrants from northern colonies, and by English and French Huguenot cotton planters from the low country. In the colonial period this area was a center for the Regulator movement, which sought to bring law and order to the backcountry. During the Revolutionary War, Lord Cornwallis made his headquarters in Winnsboro from October 1780 to January 1781.
Early Settlers: Mobley, Killpatrick, Maple, Walker, Hendrix, Austin, Woodward, Williams, Sights, Gibson, Andrews, Thompson, Brown, McKinstry, Alston, Marple, McCaulley, Durham, Davis, McMorris, Martin, Bell, Minor Winn, James Robertson, Benjamin Cleveland, and others.
Wills and Estate Records Available to Members of South Carolina Pioneers
Fairfield County Will Book A (abstracts)
Fairfield County Will Book 1: Transcripts (1787-1791)Testators: Arledge, Moses; Beasley, Jacob; Belton, Sarah; Briggs, Frederick; Brown, Jacob; Carden, Larkin; Carledge, Isaac; Colfman, Charles; Dods, John; Fellows, Mathias; Graves, James; Hill, William; Hornsby, Leonard; Lewis, John; Lowe, Isaac; Marple, Thomas; McCreight, William; McMaster, Hugh; Miller, Alexander; Neal, Samuel; Owens, Thomas; Peay, George; Phillips, Robert; Robertson, Henry ; Rogers, John; Routledg, Thomas; Scott, George; Starns, Peter; Young, John
Fairfield County Will Book 2: Transcripts (1792-1795)Testators: Aiken, Charles; Andrews, James; Andrews, John; Auston, Elizabeth; Bell, Thomas; Bennett, Sarah; Boney, Jacob; Brown, Robert; Burns, Dennis; Camron, Joseph; Cassity, Peter; Cockrel, Moses; Coleman, Robert; Colhoun, James; Colhoun, William; Collins, Moses; Cook, Esther; Cork, John; Dods, Joseph; Evans, David; Frazer, William; Funderburgh, Henry; Gamble, Hugh; Gamble, Samuel; Gibson, Jacob; Hardage, James; Hays, Mathew; Holles, Moses; Holmes, William; Hugeley, Henry; Johnson, James; Kirkland, Francis; Knighton, Moses; Lemley, Peter; Lewey, George; Littlejohn, Marcellas; Martin, George; McBride, Robert; McClurken, John; McColloch, John; McCreight, David; McDowell, Alexander; McFadden, Anne; McMullon, John; Mickle, Thomas; Neeley, Richard; Neely, Richard; Paul, James; Pettipool, Ephraim; Phillips, William; Porter, James; Robertson, Alexander; Robinson, Margaret ; Sanders, Nathan; Shaver, Philip; Waugh, Samuel; Whitted, William
Fairfield County Will Book 4: Transcripts (1800-1803)Testators: Arskin, Peter; Austin, Elizabeth; Austin, James; Bell, George; Ewing, William; Henson, Bartlet; Husey, Isaac; Kincaid, James ; Lightner, John; Marple, Northrup; Miller, John; Mobley, Samuel; Morris, William; Paul, Arsbald; Richardson, Samuel; Robinson, James; Thompson, John; Walker, Henry; Woodward, Elizabeth; Woodward, Henry
Fairfield Will Book A (abstracts)
Indexes to Probate RecordsIndex to Fairfield County Will Book 1 (1787-1791)
Index to Fairfield County Will Book 2 (1792-1795)
Index to Fairfield County Will Book 4 (1800-1803)
Index to Fairfield County Will Book 5 (1804-1805)
Index to Fairfield County Will Book 6 (1806-1807)
Index to Fairfield County Will Book 7 (1815-1816)
Index to Fairfield County Will Book 8 (1822-1823)
Index to Fairfield County Will Book 9 (1824-1829)
Index to Fairfield County Will Book 10 (1828-1829)
Index to Fairfield County Will Book 12 (1829-1830)
Index to Fairfield County Will Book 11 (1836-1837)
Index to Fairfield County Will Book 13 (1831-1833)
Index to Fairfield County Probate Records, 1787 to 1868, Surnames A to Z
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